Design for additive manufacturing and its effect on the performance characteristics of a control valve trim

  • Dharminder Singh School of Computing & Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, UK (HD1 3DH)
  • Matthew Charlton Weir Valves & Controls UK Ltd, Britannia House, Elland, UK (HX5 9JR)
  • Taimoor Asim School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen, UK (AB10 7GJ)
  • Rakesh Mishra School of Computing & Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, UK (HD1 3DH)
Keywords: Additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, control valves, disk stack trim, flow capacity


Additive Manufacturing methods have been gaining popularity over the traditional manufacturing methods in the past three decades due to shorter product development cycles and reduced manufacturing costs. Selective Laser Melting is one of the most popular methods of Additive Manufacturing. In this paper, the effect of the manufacturing method on the performance characteristics of disc stack trims manufactured by Selective Laser Melting is investigated. Initially manufactured trim showed a reduction in the flow capacity as compared to the trim manufactured by Electron Discharge Machining. The reason for the reduction in flow capacity was found to be the increased surface roughness of the trim manufactured by Selective Laser Melting. Therefore, changes were made to the process parameters within the manufacturing method to improve the surface finish and its corresponding effect on the valve trim’s performance was assessed. Furthermore, a new design of the disc stack trim to aid the manufacturing method was also tested. The results showed that the changes to process parameters produced a negligible effect on the trim’s performance but changes to the design of the valve trim resulted in improvement of the performance. Results thus indicate that for critical applications it may be necessary to alter the design of the components to derive most benefits from additive manufacturing technology.


Asim, T. Oliveira, A. Charlton, M. Mishra, R. (2019). Improved Design of a Multi-Stage Continuous-Resistance Trim for minimum Energy Loss in Control Valves. Energy. Volume: 174. 954 – 971.

Asim, T. Oliveira, A. Charlton, M. Mishra, R. (2019). Effects of the Geometrical Features of Flow Paths on the Flow Capacity of a Control Valve Trim. Petroleum science and Engineering. Volume: 172. 124 – 138.

Charlton, M. (2014). Cost effective manufacturing and optimal design of X-stream trims for severe service control valves. MSc thesis. University of Huddersfield, UK.

Charlton, M., Mishra, R., Asim, T., (2016), The effect of manufacturing method induced roughness on severe service control valve performance in proc. 6th International and 43rd National Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, India.

Thompson, M. Moroni, G. Vanekar, T. Fadel, G. Campbell, R. Gibson, I. Bernard, A. Schulz, J. Graf, P. Ahuja, B. Martina, F. (2016). Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP Annals. Volume: 65. 737 – 760.

Herzog, D. Seyda, V. Wycisk, E. Emmelmann, C. (2016). Additive manufacturing of metals. Acta Mater. Volume: 117. 371 – 392.

Nguyen, Q. Luu, D. Nai, S. Zhu, Z. Chen, Z. Wei, J. (2018). The role of powder layer thickness on the quality of SLM printed parts. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. Volume: 18. 948 – 955.

Tsopanos, S. (2008). Micro heat exchangers by selective laser melting. PhD thesis. University of Liverpool, UK.

Enneti, R. Morgan, R. Atre, S. (2018). Effect of process parameters on the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of tungsten. International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials. Volume: 71. 315 – 319.

Hanzl, P. Zetek, M. Bakša, T. Kroupa, T. (2015). The Influence of Processing Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of SLM Parts. Procedia Engineering. Volume: 100. 1405 – 1413.

Osakada, K. Shiomi, M. (2006). Flexible manufacturing of metallic products by selective laser melting of powder. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture. Volume: 46. 1188 – 1193.

Yadroitsev, I. Thivillon, L. Bertrand, P. Smurov, I. (2007). Strategy of manufacturing components with designed internal structure by selective laser melting of metallic powder. Applied Surface Science. Volume: 254. 980 – 983.

Asim, T. (2013). Capacity testing of x-stream valves for single-component single-phase flows. Weir Valves and Controls, UK.

British Standards Institute. (1998). Industrial-process control valves. BS EN 60534-2-3. Flow capacity – Test procedures.

Taylor, J. Carrano, A. Kandlikar, S. (2006). Characterization of the effect of surface roughness and texture on fluid flow-past, present, and future. International Journal of Thermal Sciences. Volume: 45. 962 – 968.

Leach, R. (2011). Optical measurement of surface topography. Springer.